Learning/Teaching Styles and Strategies


Style - A learning/teaching reaction innate to that person, e.g. to prefer visual material.
Strategy - A decision by an individual to structure a learning experience in a particular way, e.g. serialistically.

Pedagogy - The process adults helping children to learn in a teacher-pupil relationship.
Andragogy - The process of adults helping adults learn and encompasses the relationship between them.
Heutagogy - The process of self-directed study, i.e. the counter-point to current educational systems.

Metaphysical Knowledge - It is generally agreed to be true therefore it is true.
Empirical Knowledge - It works in real life like this therefore it is true.
Scientific Knowledge - It is true because we have this evidence.

Behaviourism - This deals with studying learner behaviours that can be observed and measured.
Cognitivism - This considers the mental processes, i.e. how people perceive, think, remember, learn, solve problems as well as how they direct their attention between competing stimuli.
Connectivism - This assumes that learner will work with a range of sources and media to improve their understanding and share these with those around them, usually through social contact or social media.
Constructivism - Where learners interact with the environment and then construct their own knowledge based on that interaction.
Instructivism - A behaviourist theory that is the opposing view to constructivism.  Here is it the teacher who is deemed to be best placed to create and deliver a curriculum.  This is the prevailing view in education today.

Acclimatisation - The short period between an new concept being taught and the recipient understanding it.
Assimilation - The period between the acclimatisation of a new concept and it becoming "normal".

Matrix of Educational Theories

      Strategy (Nurture)
    Style (Nature)  
Learner   Experiential Learning (Dewey, 1938)
LSI Model (Dunn and Dunn, 1978)
VARK (Fleming, 1987)
Felder-Silverman Test (Felder and Silverman, 1988)
Mind Styles Model (Gregorc, 1984)
Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument (Herrmann, 2012)
Stages of Development (Piaget, 1964)
Learning styles don't exist (Riener and Willingham, 2010)
Multiple intelligences (Gardner, 1983)
Triarchic theory of intelligence (Sternberg, 1985)
Radical constructivism (von Glasersfeld, 1984)
Honey-Mumford (Honey and Mumford, 1986)
Experiential Learning (Kolb, 1975)
Surface, strategic and deep learning (Entwistle, 1983)
Why Children Fail (Holt, 1964)
Deep and surface learning (Marton/Säljö, 1976)
Conversation Theory (Pask, 1975)
Inquiry Education (Postman and Weingartner, 1969)
Operant conditioning (Skinner, 1938)
Teacher Myer-Briggs Type Indicator (Myer and Briggs, 1964)
Discovery Learning (Bruner, 1961)
Critical pedagogy (Freire, 1968)
Empirical :-
   Visible Learning (Hattie, 2008)
   Learning Analysis (Siemens, 2010)

Theoretical :-
   Not yet
Meaningful Learning (Ausubel, 1963)
On Education (Aristotle, ~340BCE)
  Constructive alignment theory (Biggs, 1996)
Pedagogy (Middle ages)
Andragogy (Knowles, 1973)
Heutagogy (Hase and Kenyon, 2000)
Adaptive educational hypermedia (de Bra and Brusilovsky, 1994)
Zone of proximal development (Vygotsky, 1934)
Bloom's Taxonomy (Bloom et al., 1956)
Active Learning (Bonwell and Eison, 1991)
Didactica Magna (Comenius, 1657)
The Lives of Children (Dennison, 1969)
The Education of Man (Fröbel, 1826)
Dumbing us Down (Gatto, 1991)
Compulsory Mis-Education (Goodman, 1964)
The Way It Spozed To Be (Herndon, 1968)
Flipping the Classroom (Khan, 2011)
The Open Classroom (Kohl, 1967)
Savage Inequalities (Kozol, 1991)
Marzano Teaching Strategies (Marzano, 1998)
Montessori Method (Montessori, 1910)
Codified Teaching (Pestelozzi, 1801)
Epistemology (Plato, ~360BC)
Enhancing Creativity (Robinson, 2013)
Development of reasoning (Rousseau, 1762)
Crisis in the Classroom (Silberman, 1971)
Elenchus or Socratic method (Socrates, ~400BC)
Waldorf Education (Steiner, 1907)