Learning/Teaching Styles and Strategies

Terminology

Style - A learning/teaching reaction innate to that person, e.g. to prefer visual material.
Strategy - A decision by an individual to structure a learning experience in a particular way, e.g. serialistically.

Pedagogy - The process adults helping children to learn in a teacher-pupil relationship. [bibtex]
Andragogy - The process of adults helping adults learn and encompasses the relationship between them. [bibtex]
Heutagogy - The process of self-directed study, i.e. the counter-point to current educational systems. [bibtex]
Eldergogy or Geragogy - Less a seperate educational theory, but rather encouraging awareness of the issues facing the elderly when learning. [bibtex]

Behaviourism - This deals with studying learner behaviours that can be observed and measure. [bibtex]
Radical Behaviourism - This adds thoughts, emotions and other thought behaviours to the standard behaviourist model.
Instructivism - A variant of behaviourism that is the opposing view to constructivism.  Here is it the teacher who is deemed to be best placed to create and deliver a curriculum.  This is the prevailing view in education today.
Cognitivism - This considers the mental processes, i.e. how people perceive, think, remember, learn, solve problems as well as how they direct their attention between competing stimuli.
Connectivism - This assumes that learner will work with a range of sources and media to improve their understanding and share these with those around them, usually through social contact or social media.
Constructivism - Where learners interact with the environment and then construct their own knowledge based on that interaction.
Radical Constructivism - Knowledge is the result of a self-organized collection of understandings which may or may not agree with others around them.
Grounded Theory - This was put forward by Barney G. Glaser and Anselm L, Strauss in 1967.  It argues that usual method of creating a theory and then testing it could be turned on its head.  Here, the data is analysed to generate a theory, i.e. the theory is grounded in the data.

Metaphysical Knowledge - It is generally agreed to be true therefore it is true.
Empirical Knowledge - It works in real life like this therefore it is true.
Scientific Knowledge - It is true because we have this evidence.

Acclimatisation - The short period between a new concept being taught and the recipient understanding it.
Assimilation - The period between the acclimatisation of a new concept and it becoming "normal".

Useful Sites
    Human intelligence theories

Theories (how it works)

This list those who theorised about the best techniques to learn or teach, including learning styles.

both by Plato
Theorist(s) Theory Year Paper Reference Overview Video Link
Aristotle On Education ~340BCE Charles Hummel (1999) on the works of Aristotle Aristotle equated education with being civilised and happy.  He saw an education in both the arts and sciences as being a political tool to bring about a happy and self-fulfilled society. YouTube
David Ausubel Meaningful learning 1963 Ausubel, D. (1963). The Psychology of Meaningful Verbal Learning. New York: Grune and Stratton. Learners attach new learning to previously acquired learning - that is what gives it meaning.  Therefore teachers should take the time to discover what learners know before introducing new topics and then make the links explicit. YouTube
Gershon Ben-Shakhar and Yakov Sinai Differential Guessing Tendencies 1991 Gender Differences in Multiple-Choice Tests: The Role of Differential Guessing Tendencies They show that there is a difference between male and female tactics when taking multiple choice tests.  Males tend to guess more if they do not know the answers. YouTube
John Biggs Constructive alignment theory 1996 Biggs, John. "Enhancing teaching through constructive alignment." Higher education 32.3 (1996): 347-364. This postulates three levels of teachers; Level 1 focuses on what students are, e.g. good or bad.  Level 2 teachers focus on their performance.  Level 3 teachers concentrate on what students do, i.e. how the course content and learning tasks relate to the exam. YouTube
Alfred Binet Intelligence Testing 1904 The development of intelligence in children: The Binet-Simon Scale Alfred Binet and his colleague, Théodore Simon, wanted to find a way to measure intelligence.  They decided to use a series of tasks (different for different age groups) to rank the children.  Children were then given an intelligence age to compare to their chronological age. YouTube
Benjamin Samuel Bloom Bloom's taxonomy 1956 Bloom, B. S.; Engelhart, M. D.; Furst, E. J.; Hill, W. H.; Krathwohl, D. R. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. Handbook I: Cognitive domain. New York: David McKay Company This describes the order in which we acquire new knowledge.  The six stages are; knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation.  The stages should be completed in that order. YouTube
Benjamin Samuel Bloom Mastery learning 1968 Bloom, B. S. (1968). Learning for Mastery. Instruction and Curriculum. Regional Education Laboratory for the Carolinas and Virginia, Topical Papers and Reprints, Number 1 This follows on from the work of John Carroll.  It encourages teachers to all students to learn at their own pace because he found that 95% of pupils could understand everything in the curriculum if given enough time.  Rather than have one-size-fits-all education, he suggested that faster students have less teacher and resource time allocated than the less able. YouTube
Edward de Bono Six Thinking Hats 1985 Edward De Bono. Six Thinking Hats (1985) ISBN 0-316-17831-4 The traditional method of discourse is the argument.  de Bono suggested that this could be replaced in schools by having six ways of viewing a problem: Managing (Blue), Information (White), Emotions (Red), Discernment (Black), Optimistic response (Yellow) and Creativity (Green) - the six thinking hats. YouTube - Video 1
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Bonwell and Eison Active learning 1991 Bonwell, C.; Eison, J. (1991). Active Learning: Creating Excitement in the Classroom AEHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 1. Washington, D.C.: Jossey-Bass. ISBN 1-878380-08-7. This is where a practical activity is planned which illustrates the concept being studied.  For example, providing students with a pieces of paper each of which describes a particular stage in a process and asking them to arrange these into a sensible order. YouTube
Paul de Bra Adaptive educational hypermedia 2003 Bra, P.M.E. De, Aerts, A.T.M., Berden, B. & Lange, B. de (2003). Escape from the tyranny of the textbook: Adaptive object inclusion in AHA!. In A. Rossett (Ed.), Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2003, (pp. 65-71). Chesapeake, VA: AACE. The computer is taught how to teach (using different learning and personality styles) and then adapts its presentation of materials according to the time the learner takes complete tasks and their level of success. YouTube
Katharine Cook Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myers Myers–Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) 1964 MBTI type descriptors This is a questionnaire which, when analysed, puts the learner into one of 16 personality types.  The learner can then use their personality type to target their learning preferences. YouTube
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Jerome Bruner Discovery learning 1961 Bruner, J. S. (1961). "The act of discovery". Harvard Educational Review 31 (1): 21-32. Constructivist theory which emphasises the ability of children and adults to construct and adapt their own view of a subject.  This happens when we revisit a topic from several different directions (spiral learning) and then adapt our way of think on the topic so far (scaffolding). YouTube
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Peter Brusilovsky Adaptive educational hypermedia 1994 Peter Brusilovsky, Adaptive Hypermedia: The State of the Art, (1994) The computer is taught how to teach (using different learning and personality styles) and then adapts its presentation of materials according to the time the learner takes complete tasks and their level of success. YouTube
John Bissel Carroll Model of school learning 1963 John Carroll, A model of school learning, Teachers College Record, 1963, 64:723-733 Carroll put forward that, in the current system, how much you learn depends upon your ability since everyone in a class has access to the same teaching resources.  However, since abilities differ, more would understand if the time allocated to learning varied by the ability of the pupil. YouTube
Christopher F. Chabris and Daniel James Simons Inattentional blindness 2010 The invisible gorilla: And other ways our intuitions deceive us, Harmony, 2010 We can all miss important and obvious details when concentrating on something else.  For example, a student who is trying to understand a new concept may well miss the piece of information which makes it clear. YouTube
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John Amos Comenius Didactica Magna 1657 Didactica Magna All children, regardless of the circumstance of their birth, should have an education based on their abilities and individual learning preferences. YouTube
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Thomas M Connolly The effects of gaming 2012 A systematic literature review of empirical evidence on computer games and serious games This paper examines the evidence of the effect of computer gaming on the learning and behavioural outcomes of games, kKnowledge acquisition/content understanding, perceptual and cognitive skills, motor skills and behavioural change. None ... yet
George Dennison The Lives of Children 1969 The Lives of Children "As an educator he promoted the idea that relationships, not instruction, promoted real learning. As such schools needed to be places where freedom of choice created the trust that allows for a full relationship between teachers and students. These ideas were considered radical because they questioned compulsory attendance and the focus on external student behavior to enhance student management. Since the focus on controlling student behavior interferes with relationship, his work suggests a preference for small schools and an implied criticism of large schools, especially in their ability to be effective with high risk students. He believe teaching was an art, not really a science and, as such, it was never technique that caused learning to occur, but rather the full complexity of individual relationships between students and teachers that were not reducible to the predictability of technique. Further, he felt that much of significant learning occurs strictly within the students individual motivation and between students, when the teachers are wise enough to stand aside and allow it to occur.", Wikipedia article on George Dennison No video ... yet
Sebastian Deterding Gamification 2011 From game design elements to gamefulness: defining gamification He describes this as, "the use of game design elements in non-game contexts".  Game design elements could be; progress mechanics (points/badges/leaderboards, or PBL's), narrative, player control, immediate feedback, opportunities for collaborative problem solving, scaffolded learning with increasing challenges, opportunities for mastery, and leveling up and social connection. Source YouTube
John Dewey Social behaviorism 1938 Experience and Education This constructivist theory says that all learning happens through unique and individual experience, rather than by rote learning (the prevalent view at the time).  This experience then leads to a growth (learning and social awareness).  All learning should be in context, i.e. learn about flowers by looking at them in the field rather than in a textbook. YouTube
Stephen Downes and George Siemens Connectivism 2005 Connectivism: A Learning Theory for the Digital Age - George Siemens, An Introduction to the Digital Age - Stephen Downes Connectivism supposes that since the knowledge is out there, one needs to connect to it.  This can happen with the Internet by use of informal social media connections. YouTube
Rita Dunn and Kenneth Dunn Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles 1978 Dunn and Dunn web site The Dunns say that there are five areas which affect learning; the environment (lighting, seating, etc.), emotional state (motivation, responsibility, etc.), social situation (learn alone or learn in a team), physiological preferences (VARK, time of day, control of intake, etc.) and psychological tastes (impulsive/reflective, serialist/holist, etc.). No video ... yet
Carol S Dweck The Growth Mindset 2010 Even Geniuses Work Hard The brain research quoted in this article shows how a positive mindset leads to a greater growth in ability.  Students given open-ended questions and a non-judgemental system ("not yet" rather than "fail") achieve more. YouTube
Noel Entwistle Surface, strategic and deep learning 1983 Entwistle, N.J., and Ramsden, P. (1983). Understanding Student Learning. London: Croom Helm Surface learners are only interested in getting the minimum they can get away with from a course.  Strategic learners will only do the minimum they need to pass.  Deep learners want to understand and internalise the material. YouTube
Richard Felder and Linda Silverman The Felder-Silverman Learning and Teaching Styles Model 1988 R.M. Felder and L.K. Silverman, "Learning and Teaching Styles in Engineering Education," Engr. Education, 78(7), 674-681 (1988) The Felder-Silverman test ranks respondents on four continua; Active/Reflective, Sensing/Intuitive, Visual/Verbal and Sequential/Global.  The responses are then ranked into no preferences, moderate preferences and high preferences for each type.  These can then be used by both students and teachers to use the correct tools for each learner. YouTube
Leon Festinger Cognitive dissonance 1959 A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance by Leon Festinger Cognitive dissonance is the desire to make internalised views consistent.  For example, if a student cannot reach the goal (e.g. passing a test), then this is turned into, "Well, there is no point in passing that silly test because it is not what I wanted to do anyway". YouTube
Reuven Feuerstein The Mutability of Intelligence and Mediated Learning 1990 Instrumental enrichment: An intervention program for cognitive modifiability
The theory of structural modifiability In: Learning and thinking styles: Classroom interaction
Prof. Feuerstein argued that the level of intelligence could be modified.  The mechanism used to achieve this is call mediated learning which is achieved by going through three stages; the teacher explains that they intend to mediate and the child must respond that they are learning, the importance and the reasons for the activities are explained and then the "far picture" is transferred.  These are called mediations. YouTube
Neil Fleming VARK 1987 VARK Site The theory is an enhancement of the VAR system developed from neurolinguistic programming.  The original Visual, Auditory and Reading preferences was amended by splitting the reading preference into Reading and Kinesthetic.  There can be problems if the teaching style is out of kilter with learning style of the individual. YouTube
John H. Flavell Metacognition 1976 Flavell, J. H. (1976). Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp.231-236). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum "Metacognition refers to higher order thinking which involves active control over the cognitive processes engaged in learning. Activities such as planning how to approach a given learning task, monitoring comprehension, and evaluating progress toward the completion of a task are metacognitive in nature.", Google search on metacognition YouTube
James Robert Flynn The Flynn Effect 1987 Massive IQ gains in 14 nations: What IQ tests really measure. The Flynn effect is the phenomenon of rising IQ scores in various countries around the world.  The possible causes for this, such as better education, increased living standards, etc. is still debated. YouTube
BJ Fogg Fogg Behavioural Model 2009 Fogg, Brian J. "A behavior model for persuasive design." Proceedings of the 4th international Conference on Persuasive Technology. ACM, 2009. "The FBM asserts that for a person to perform a target behavior, he or she must (1) be sufficiently motivated, (2) have the ability to perform the behavior, and (3) be triggered to perform the behavior. These three factors must occur at the same moment, else the behavior will not happen. The FBM is useful in analysis and design of persuasive technologies. .", see reference cited YouTube
Paulo Freire Critical pedagogy 1968 About Pedagogy of the Oppressed Challenging the ways of teaching, both by the teachers and by the students.  Both staff and students have to feel free to criticise and question both the style and the content of the material being taught. YouTube
Friedrich Fröbel The Education of Man 1826 The Education of Man Fröbel invented the term Kindergarten.  He saw that young children learned through play and so invented his 10 "gifts", toys such as building blocks and two dimensional play sets illustrated the ideas of mathematics and science.  Each gift was used to create forms of life, knowledge and beauty.  Play is nature's way of letting children make sense of the world around them. YouTube
Robert Mills Gagné Conditions of Learning 1965 Conditions of Learning, 1965, published by Holt, Rinehart and Winston The Gagné Assumption proposes that there are five types of learning; verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, motor skills and attitude. There are also nine events of instruction; gain attention, set objectives, assessment of prior learning, providing a stimulus, providing guidance, assessing performance, providing feedback, the assessment of learning and the retention of the new knowledge. And finally, it has eight conditions of learning; signal learning, stimulus, chaining, verbal association, discrimination learning, concept learning, rule learning and problem solving. YouTube
Sir Francis Galton Hereditary Genius 1869 Hereditary Genius Sir Francis Galton believed that humans could be measured and classified.  As a statistician, he wanted to quantify intelligence and determine the importance of breeding in humans. YouTube
Howard Gardner Multiple intelligences 1983 Gardner, H. (1983/2003). Frames of mind. The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: BasicBooks.
Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple intelligences: The theory in practice. New York: BasicBooks.
The theory of multiple intelligences postulates eight different kinds of intelligence, each of which can be measured separately; musical, visual, verbal, logical, kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic and existential. YouTube
John Taylor Gatto Dumbing Us Down 1991 Dumbing Us Down: The Hidden Curriculum of Compulsory Schooling Schooling confuses pupils, teaches them their place in society, makes them intellectually dependent and shows that they will always be supervised. YouTube
Ernst von Glasersfeld Radical constructivism 1984 Von Glasersfeld, Ernst. Radical Constructivism: A Way of Knowing and Learning. Studies in Mathematics Education Series: 6. Falmer Press, Taylor & Francis Inc., 1900 Frost Road, Suite 101, Bristol, PA 19007., 1995. Knowledge is created by the individual because it is their structure of reality that has meaning for them.  These structures are based upon existing foundations and are not objective. YouTube
Paul Goodman Compulsory Mis-education 1964 Compulsory Mis-Education and the Community of Scholars. Education is run as a repressive social system rather than to educate the young as Thomas Jefferson would have wanted.  He envisaged an educational system in which there were schools with 25 pupils, one teacher, a housewife, a university graduate and someone who had just finished schooling. YouTube
Anthony Gregorc Mind Styles Model and Gregorc Style Delineator 1982 Gregorc, A. F. (1982). An Adult’s Guide to Style. Maynard, Massachusetts: Gabriel Systems, Inc.
Anthony F. Gregorc. Gregorc Style Delineator: Development, Technical, and Administration Manual. Gregorc Associates, Inc., 1984
This categorises learners into one of four type; Concrete Sequential, Abstract Random, Abstract Sequential, Concrete Random and then displays which learning and teaching strategies work best for that type. YouTube
John Hattie Visible learning 2008 Visible Learning: A Synthesis of Over 800 Meta-Analyses Relating to Achievement. ISBN 0-415-47618-6 A statistical synthesis of of many thousands of studies into educational practice.  These have then been categorised by 138 factors and given a score according to the affect they have on learner achievement.  These were then split into six general areas; the student, the home, the school, the curricula, the teacher, and teaching/learning approaches. YouTube - Part 1
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James Herndon The Way It Spozed To Be 1968 The Way It Spozed To Be He examines what is still the root problem of ghetto schools: their failure to reach the kids, their obsession with rote learning, and imposed discipline, which only drives kids further into apathy and rebellion. YouTube
William "Ned" Herrmann Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument (HBDI) 2012 Herrmann, Ned. "The creative brain*." The Journal of Creative Behavior 25.4 (1991): 275-295. Four quadrants of thinking styles; logical, details, emotional needs of others and long term planning.  You have a score for each quadrant and linking these four dots results in a diamond shape. YouTube
Richard Herrnstein Matching law 1961 Relative and Absolute strength of Response as a Function of Frequency of Reinforcement 1, 2 by Richard Herrnstein A mathematical law derived from observing pigeons seeking food.  Herrnstein found that the ratio between the number of tries a pigeon made of a button to get food was the same ratio as the chance of that button dispensing food.  The more likely a button produced food, the more often it was hit.  Conversely, a low probability meant fewer tries.  In education, poor results are reinforced by attempting less, whilst success results in more attempts and therefore a greater rate of achievement. YouTube
John Holt Unschooling 1964 Unschooling web site Unschooling - Children like to learn, but do not like to be taught.  They can be taught by guiding rather than by dictat.
How Children Fail
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Peter Honey and Alan Mumford Activist, Reflector, Theorist and Pragmatist 1982 The Manual of Learning Styles Activists prefer to get stuck in.  Reflectors want to consider the problem before starting.  Theorist want to take the clear and logical approach.  Pragmatists will look for the easy solution that will work for them. YouTube
Ivan Illich Deschooling society 1971 Deschooling Society The educational institutions have more to do with teaching conformity than providing an education. YouTube
Fred Simmons Keller and John Gilmour Sherman The Keller Plan (Personal System of Instruction) 1968 Good-bye, teacher... - Fred S. Keller The Keller Plan has five platforms; written materials should be provided, courses should be broken down into many units, the work should be self-paced, mastery of units should be demonstrated and finally, proctors (students who have completed the course successfully) should be used. YouTube
Salman Khan Flipping the classroom 2011 The Flipped Classroom by Bill Tucker also, see The Khan Academy Students watch videos on the topic to be covered the next day rather than the teacher stand in front of a class.  The class then becomes a question and answer session in which ideas are explored and internalised. YouTube
David Kolb Experiential learning 1975 Kolb. D. A. and Fry, R. (1975) Toward an applied theory of experiential learning. in C. Cooper (ed.), Theories of Group Process, London: John Wiley Learners need to cycle through the four stages of learning; active experimentation, concrete experience, reflective observation and abstract conceptualisation.  It does not matter where a learner starts in the cycle. YouTube
Herbert Kohl The Open Classroom 1967 Teaching the Unteachable This and his subsequent work advocate education as a tool to empower poor and handicapped children to achieve and therefore escape their surroundings.  He saw children being stigmatised by their circumstances of birth and railed against it. YouTube
Jonathan Kozol Savage Inequalities 1991 Savage Inequalities Kozol argues that segregation is alive and well in the educational system in the USA (and by implication, in other countries too).  He cites the resources provided as the cause of these inequalities. YouTube
Justin Kruger and David Dunning Threshold Concepts 1999 Unskilled and unaware of it: how difficulties in recognizing one's own incompetence lead to inflated self-assessments. There research showed that those who are not good at a task rate themselves and their work more highly.  Interestingly, the study also found that those who performed above avaerage at rating jokes were the most accurate at guaging their own abilities. YouTube
Gloria Ladson-Billings Education Debt 2006 From the achievement gap to the education debt: Understanding achievement in US schools This describes the difference between the education someone could have achieved and their actual attainment.  This may be due to social, cultural or economic circumstances. YouTube
Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger Situated Learning 1991 Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger (1991) Situated Learning. Legitimate peripheral participation, Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press Learning is based on and through relevant and engaging learning activities.  This is a constructivist approach. YouTube
Lachlan MacKinnon and Liz Bacon Virtual Scaffolding 2016 Virtual scaffolding–constructivism in online learning The authors argue that a new learning paradim is emerging for the connected age in which ever more learning is acquired socially rather than formally. No video ... yet
Ference Marton and Roger Säljö Deep and Surface Learning 1976 Marton F. and Säljö R. (1976) On qualitative differences in learning. I - Outcome and Process - British Journal of Educational Psychology 46, pp. 4-11
DOI: 10.1111/j.2044-8279.1976.tb02980.x
Deep learning is where the learner wants to understand.  Strategic learning happens when the learner just seeks to pass the exam.  Surface learners just wants the minimum. YouTube
Robert J. Marzano Marzano Teaching Strategies 1998 A Theory-Based Meta-Analysis of Research on Instruction "Marzano has identified three areas central to school improvement reforms: fostering and sustaining system-wide teaching strategies; providing effective feedback to students; and building a strong student academic vocabulary.", Wikipedia YouTube
Jan Meyer and Ray Land Threshold Concepts 2003 Threshold concepts and troublesome knowledge: Linkages to ways of thinking and practising within the disciplines Threshold concepts are those which cause the learner to see things in a new way. The idea is allied to that of troublesome knowledge by D. Perkins. YouTube
Alex C Michalos Multiple Discrepancies Theory (MDT) 1986 Multiple Discrepancies Theory (MDT) "MDT asserts that happiness and satisfaction are functions of perceived gaps between what one has and wants, relevant others have, the best one has had in the past, expected to have 3 years ago, expects to have after 5 years, deserves and needs.  MDT explained 49% of the variance in H, 53% in global S and 50% or more in 7 out of 12 domain S scores.  The domains studied were health, finances, family, job, friendships, housing, area, recreation, religion, self-esteem, transportation and education." None ... yet
Maria Tecla Artemesia Montessori Montessori education 1910 Pedagogical anthropology Children are encouraged to learn at their own pace and in their own way.  The method assumes that children learn by doing. YouTube
Gordon Pask Conversation Theory - Serialist/Holist Learning 1975 Gordon Pask (1975). The Cybernetics of Human Learning and Performance. Hutchinson Serial learners prefer to have the detail and then construct their view from that.  Holists require an overview into which the detail can be ordered. No video ... yet
David Perkins Troublesome Knowledge 1999 Perkins, D. (1999). The Many Faces of Constructivism, Educational Leadership, Volume 57, Number 3, November Troublesome concepts are those which cause a student to pause learning a subject because the ideas seem counter intuitive or alien.  This lead on to the concept of threshold knowledge by Mayer and Land. YouTube
Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi Codified Teaching 1801 How Gertrude Teaches her Children Knowledge should be broken down into subject areas so as not to confuse.  The child should be the centre of attention and their needs and preferences taken into account when teaching.  There are four spheres of development; home and family, vocational and individual self-determination, and state and nation and inner sense (spirituality and moral well-being). Youtube
Jean Piaget A part of Cognitive Theory 1964 Piaget, J. (1964), Part I: Cognitive development in children: Piaget development and learning. J. Res. Sci. Teach., 2: 176–186. doi: 10.1002/tea.3660020306 Children develop through different stages; Stage 1 - Sensorimotor stage, Stage 2 - Pre-operational, Stage 3 - Concrete operational and Stage 4 - Formal operational. YouTube
Plato Epistemology ~360BC Theaetetus Plato is created with inventing the concept of epistemology - the theory about the nature of knowledge.  He view has been paraphrased (possibly by Plato himself) as, "Knowledge is justified true belief". YouTube
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Neil Postman and Charles Weingartner Inquiry Education 1969 Teaching as a Subversive Activity Encouraging pupils to learn how to learn, using their peers as well as the teacher is preferable to the current pedagogy. No video ... yet
Cedar Riener and Daniel Willingham Learning Styles Don't Exist 2010 The Myth of Learning Styles, Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, Volume 42, Issue 5, 2010 Most learning is meaning-based (i.e. understanding) rather than through a particular learning style preference. YouTube
Sir Kenneth Robinson Enhancing creativity 2013 Finding Your Element: How To Discover Your Talents and Passions and Transform Your Life Current educational practice stifles education because it seeks to regiment the material, its presentation and method of understanding.  Creativity is discouraged. YouTube
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Jean-Jacques Rousseau Development of reasoning 1762 Emile Current educational practice stifles education because it seeks to regiment the material, its presentation and method of understanding.  Creativity is discouraged. YouTube
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Luxi Shen and Christopher K. Hsee Numerical Nudging 2017 Numerical Nudging: Using an Accelerating Score to Enhance Performance Numerical nudging is the idea that performance can be improved by increasing the scores awarded for each step of improvement.  Making the rewards bigger, even though the score is meaningless, rewards higher level performance. No video ... yet
Charles E. Silberman Crisis in the Classroom 1971 Crisis in the Classroom Silberman argues that urban and rural schooling in the USA consists of rote learning driven by adults not appreciating the dull, dreary nature of the school day and by Principals following the system. No video ... yet
George Siemens Learning analytics 2011 Siemens, George, and Phil Long. "Penetrating the fog: Analytics in learning and education." Educause Review 46.5 (2011): 30-32.
Siemens, George, and Ryan SJ d Baker. "Learning analytics and educational data mining: towards communication and collaboration." Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on learning analytics and knowledge. ACM, 2012.
There are six phases:- establishing data sources, creating the data repositories, providing monitoring tools, creating the methods of analysis and establishing who will have permissions to view each of these analyses. YouTube
Burrhus Frederic (B.F.) Skinner Operant conditioning 1938 The Behavior of Organisms: An Experimental Analysis, 1938. ISBN 1-58390-007-1, ISBN 0-87411-487-X. The behaviourist approach requires a response to a stimulus.  If the behaviour was "correct" then a reward was given. YouTube
Charles Spearman The G Factor 1904 "General Intelligence," objectively determined and measured Spearman, a statistician, started the debate about the measurability of intelligence.  He argued that there is a general intelligence, which he called G, that underlies human abilities. YouTube
Charles Spearman and William Brown Spearman-Brown Prophecy 1910 Spearman - Correlation calculated from faulty data, Brown - Some experimental results in the correlation of mental abilities Spearman and Brown each published papers in 1910 in which they argued that even weak statistical relationships might have value.  Brown used the technique to analyse results in education. YouTube
Socrates Elenchus or Socratic method ~400BC Euthyphro and IonThe Socratic method of teaching involves a discussion between in which hypotheses are eliminated by exploring all their ramifications and finding any contradictions or inconsistencies.  If either is found then the hypothesis is rejected, a new one formulated and then tested.  This cycle, Socrates believed, would lead to a better understanding of the world.  Poor behaviour, he argued was just the result of not understand the implications of this behaviour - it was an educational issue. YouTube
Rudolf Steiner Waldorf Education 1907 Steiner, Rudolph. "The education of the child in the light of spiritual science." Rhythms of learning. Great Barrington, MA: Anthroposophical Press.(Original work published in 1907) (1989). This assumes three stages; early (birth to six or seven) - where the emphasis is on hands-on activities and creative play, primary education (six or seven to fourteen) - where the focus is on artistic expression and developing social skills and secondary (aged 14 plus) - where children develop critical skills and an empathetic understandings of the world through the study of mathematics, arts, sciences, humanities and languages. YouTube
Robert Jeffery Sternberg Triarchic Theory of Intelligence 1985 Sternberg, R. J. (1985). Beyond IQ: A Triarchic Theory of Intelligence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. There are three types of intelligence; analytic (the ability to critique a situation), creative (the ability to create good new ideas) and practical (the ability to apply concepts in new areas). YouTube
Edward Lee Thorndike The Laws of Effect, Readiness and Exercise 1927 The Law of Effect A behaviourist theory before the age of behaviourism, originally formulated in 1905.  Learning is promoted if; it is accompanied by something pleasant or satisfying (effect), the learner is ready and eager to concentrate (readiness) and the new skill is repeated (exercise).  The converse is also true.  Learning suffers if there is a negative response, the learner is distracted or the skill is not practiced.  Since then other laws have been added YouTube
Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky Zone of proximal development 1978 (although written in 1934) Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. All new learning should be built on existing learning.  There is a zone around our current state of knowledge in which we can acquire new knowledge if it is linked to our existing knowledge by someone else. YouTube
John Broadus Watson Behavioural Psychology 1985 Watson, J.B. (1913). Psychology as the behaviorist views it. "Psychology as the behaviorist views it is a purely objective experimental branch of natural science. Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behavior. Introspection forms no essential part of its methods, nor is the scientific value of its data dependent upon the readiness with which they lend themselves to interpretation in terms of consciousness. The behaviorist, in his efforts to get a unitary scheme of animal response, recognizes no dividing line between man and brute. The behavior of man, with all of its refinement and complexity, forms only a part of the behaviorist's total scheme of investigation." Watson 1913 YouTube
Daniel T. Willingham Unforgetable Education 2015 Willingham, D.T. (2015). The Atlantic "The sequence of learning is as important as content.  Revisiting subjects can protect against forgetting, and sustained study over several years can help make certain knowledge permanent.  Thus, when thinking about what expect students to learn, it’s not enough that content be “covered”.  Evidence suggests that a student must use such content in his or her thinking over several years in order to remember it for a lifetime." Willingham, 2016 YouTube